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Mechanism of Action

Graphene, a 2D carbon allotrope, has exceptional properties: zero band-gap, charge carrier mobility of ~200,000 cm2/V*s, thermal conductivity of ~5000 W/m*k, optical transparency of~97.4% critically, graphene can efficiently convert light into electricity via a hot-carrier multiplication process on a femto-second timescale.

When a cell is positioned near illuminated graphene, photogenerated ballistic “hot” electrons in graphene will change the cell membrane potential, as they displace cations near the graphene/cell membrane interface due to the capacitive coupling between the cell membrane and the surface of graphene materials.
Thus, a graphene optoelectronic platform provides optical stimulation of neurons via the light-generated e-field that interacts with the transmembrane gradient, leading to the action potential generation