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Graphene-Mediated Optical Stimulation

Mechanism of Action

Graphene can efficiently convert light into electricity via a hot-carrier multiplication process on a femto-second timescale without heating the lattice

Graphene MOA.png

When a cell is near an illuminated graphene surface, photo-generated electrons in graphene can change the cell membrane potential by displacing cations near the graphene/cell membrane interface due to the capacitive coupling between the cell membrane and the surface of graphene materials.


GraMOS provides optical stimulation of cells via the external light-generated electric field that interacts with the transmembrane field gradient, leading to depolarization of the cell membrane, and triggering voltage-dependent events (e.g., activation of voltage-gated ion channels and action potential).


By simply turning the light on/off, we can elicit repetitive and transient cell membrane depolarization, and enable the dynamic optical stimulation of cells positioned near a graphene surface.


  • GraMOS provides more physiological activation via external direct cell membrane depolarization;

  • GraMOS does not require genetic modification of cells;

  • GraMOS can be enabled by a wide range of light wavelengths;

  • Simplified workflow/ Technological simplicity

Q & A

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