Graphene-Mediated Optical Stimulation
Mechanism of Action
Graphene can efficiently convert light into electricity via a hot-carrier multiplication process on a femto-second timescale without heating the lattice.
When a cell is near an illuminated graphene surface, photo-generated electrons in graphene can change the cell membrane potential by displacing cations near the graphene/cell membrane interface due to the capacitive coupling between the cell membrane and the surface of graphene materials.
GraMOS provides optical stimulation of cells via the external light-generated electric field that interacts with the transmembrane field gradient, leading to depolarization of the cell membrane, and triggering voltage-dependent events (e.g., activation of voltage-gated ion channels and action potential).
By simply turning the light on/off, we can elicit repetitive and transient cell membrane depolarization, and enable the dynamic optical stimulation of cells positioned near a graphene surface.
GraMOS provides more physiological activation via external direct cell membrane depolarization;
GraMOS does not require genetic modification of cells;
GraMOS can be enabled by a wide range of light wavelengths;
Simplified workflow/ Technological simplicity